Several general points should be noted:
Arabic is written from right to left, unlike English.
One thing you have to get used to in Arabic script is that short vowels, for example a, i, or u (as opposed to the long vowels aa, uu, and ii), are not displayed in the script. For now, get used to the fact that the word ‘bank’ (which Arabic borrowed from English), is written bnk.
Arabic script is always conjoined or cursive, i.e. there is no equivalent of the English text you are currently reading, where all the letters have separate shapes with spaces between them. There are no capital letters.
In cursive writing, the letters are joined by means of connecting strokes (called ligatures). As a result, Arabic letters have slightly different shapes depending on whether they are at the beginning, middle, or end of a word. Some letters do not join with the next letter, but all Arabic letters join with the previous one.
*The letter alif has no sound of its own and is only used to express the long vowel ‘aa’ and as a support for the so-called hamza. the hamza is not considered by the Arabs as a letter of the alphabet, but as an additional sign. Its official pronunciation is a glottal stop (as in cockney “bottle”). It is frequently omitted in speech, but is common in written Arabic: